Physics Nuclear physics


22 Nov 2023
Osaka Metropolitan University researchers and their colleagues have successfully detected an ultra-high-energy cosmic ray with an energy level comparable to the most energetic cosmic ray ever observed. The cosmic ray is set to be named after the Japanese sun goddess, Amaterasu. No promising astronomical object has been identified in the direction from which this cosmic ray originated, implying the potential existence of unknown astronomical phenomena and novel physical origins beyond the Standard Model.
02 Aug 2023
Osaka Metropolitan University researchers have shown that within the helium-8 nucleus (with two protons and six neutrons), there are two clusters of two neutrons each, existing around the helium-4 core. Furthermore, they demonstrated the shape these clusters take. Nuclei with an imbalance of protons and neutrons, such as in helium-8, do not naturally exist on Earth but are believed to be abundantly generated in cosmic environments like the interiors of stars through the process of nucleosynthesis. This study’s findings provide new insights into the still largely unknown binding forms of neutrons and deepen our understanding of the origins of the elements that surround us.
12 Apr 2023
Osaka Metropolitan University scientists have developed a theory to experimentally determine differences in nuclear structure. Using this method to assess carbon and oxygen nuclei revealed that they contain more components in their cluster structure than in their shell structure. This enables visualization of nuclear structures without large-scale numerical calculations, which are expected to be applied to heavier nuclei in the future. This suggests that the method could be used to solve the ultimate question in nuclear physics: where did the elements we see around us come from?”
01 Feb 2023
Osaka University researchers investigated the physics of laser-driven neutron sources, and found the relationship between the power and the neutrons generated. They were able to decrease the exposure time needed for neutron absorption experiments, which may be employed in biomedical research.
24 Jan 2023
Researchers from Osaka University created a bound state of a proton and a K- meson known as Λ(1405), and measured its mass. The data implied that it consisted of five quarks. This work may help scientists develop a theory of exotic matter that existed in the early Universe or in neutron stars.
22 Jun 2022
An international team led by Osaka University used experimental measurements and theoretical modeling to better understand the shape formed by the protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus of calcium-40. They found that destructive interference affects the mixture of elongated and spherical states. This research may help shed light on the reasons for the relative stability of atomic nuclei and how they are formed.


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Giants in history

Toshiko Yuasa (11 December 1909 – 1 February 1980) was the first Japanese female physicist whose research on radioactivity shed light on beta decay – the process in which an atom emits a beta particle (electron) and turns into a different element.
Mohammad Abdus Salam (29 January 1926 – 21 November 1996) was a theoretical physicist and the first Pakistani to receive a Nobel Prize in science.
Chien-Shiung Wu (31 May 1912 – 16 February 1997) was an experimental physicist who made several important contributions to nuclear physics. Wu worked on the Manhattan Project – a top-secret program for the production of nuclear weapons during World War II and helped to develop a process for separating uranium into U235 and U238.