Research stands on the shoulders of those who came before us. Therefore, we would like to invite you to look back and get to know some fascinating researchers who have made significant contributions. We will be continually adding to this list. If you would like to suggest a researcher, please email us at info AT researchsea.com.
The engineer who researched microwaves
Rajeshwari Chatterjee (24 January 1922 – 3 September 2010) was the first female engineer from Karnataka in India. Chatterjee earned a Master’s degree and doctoral degree from the University of Michigan on a scholarship awarded by the Delhi government. When Chatterjee returned to India, she became a faculty member at the Indian Institute of Science’s Department of Electrical Communication Engineering, where she taught electromagnetic theory, electron tube circuits, microwave technology and radio engineering. Chatterjee and her husband set up the first microwave engineering research laboratory in India. In her career, she wrote over 100 research papers and authored seven books. For her contributions to microwave engineering, Chatterjee won many notable awards, including the J.C Bose Memorial prize for the best research paper from the Institution of Engineers and the Ramlal Wadhwa Award for the best research and teaching work from the Institute of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers. Her contributions to microwave research and antennae engineering are used in the field of radar and aircraft and spacecraft applications. Chatterjee was also interested in societal issues and after retiring from research, worked with social programs to address issues on caste segregation, gender discrimination and poverty.
The scientist who enabled the precise measurement of weather
Anna Mani (23 August 1918 – 16 August 2001) was an Indian meteorologist who contributed significantly to the understanding of solar radiation, ozone and wind energy by developing a wide range of measurement tools. One of India’s pioneering female scientists, Mani excelled in the male-dominated area of meteorology and became the Deputy Director-General of the India Meteorological Department. She also held several important positions in the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Mani’s early research on the spectroscopy of diamonds and rubies at the Indian Institute of Science resulted in five research papers and a PhD dissertation. However, she was not awarded a PhD as she did not have a Master’s degree. Undaunted, Mani studied meteorological instruments at Imperial College London. Dedicated to accuracy, she became an expert at designing meteorological instruments, such as ozone and radiation measuring devices, and started a company to manufacture them. Also passionate about nature, trekking and bird-watching, Mani advised young professionals this way: “We have only one life. First equip yourself for the job, make full use of your talents and then love and enjoy the work, making the most of being out of doors and in contact with nature.”
The molecular biologist who studied human diversity
Syed Qasim Mehdi (13 February 1941 – 28 September 2016) was a Pakistani molecular biologist who was a founding member of the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP), which assessed human diversity by studying human migration, mutation rates, relationships between different populations, genes involved in height and selective pressure. His research has revealed new mutations in the tumour suppressor gene p53 in breast cancer patients, as well as new genes involved in night blindness, non-syndromic deafness and microphthalmia in Pakistani families. In his career, Mehdi published over two hundred publications and was a renowned personality in the scientific circles of Pakistan as well as overseas. He held a number of notable appointments, including chairman of the Center for Human Genetics at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, as well as a Distinguished Visiting Professor at the University of Karachi. In the last years of his career, Mehdi proposed a direction for the future of biomedical research in Pakistan where he envisioned the application of molecular medicine to control infectious diseases.
The biochemist who developed alternative fuels from sugarcane and coconuts
Julian Arca Banzon (13 March 1908 – 13 September 1988) was a biochemist from the Philippines who was a pioneer in alternative fuel research. Banzon investigated the use of indigenous crops as sources of renewable fuels and chemicals. He researched the production of ethyl ester biofuels from sugarcane and coconuts and developed new methods for extracting oil from coconuts using chemicals. The findings of his research contributed to the growth of the food, chemical commodities and biofuel industries. Banzon was also the first director of the Philippine Atomic Research Center (now the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute) and served as the chairman of the division of chemical and pharmaceutical science of the National Research Council of the Philippines from 1972 to 1973.
Measuring the oceans' capacity to protect the planet
Japanese geochemist Katsuko Saruhashi (22 March 1920 – 29 September 2007) developed the first method and tools for measuring carbon dioxide in seawater, which became known as Saruhashi’s Table. Her work showed that the Pacific Ocean releases twice as much carbon dioxide as it absorbs, indicating that global warming could not be substantially mitigated by seawater’s capacity to absorb carbon dioxide. Saruhashi also developed a sensitive method for measuring the amounts of radioactive isotopes Cesium-137 and Strontium-90 in seawater. Her research on the radioactive fallout from nuclear testing at Bikini Atoll helped to determine limits for oceanic nuclear testing. Her childhood fascination with rain coupled with her parents' encouragement towards technical knowledge and financial independence led to her earning a degree from the Imperial Women's College of Science, now known as Toho University. Later, she was the first woman to obtain a Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Tokyo and the first woman elected to the Science Council of Japan, she was a strong proponent of equal opportunities for women in science. She established the Society of Japanese Women Scientists as well as the Saruhashi Prize, which is awarded yearly to a female scientist who serves as a role model for younger women scientists. (Photo provided by Toho University)
The physicist who measured radioactive decay
Chien-Shiung Wu (31 May 1912 – 16 February 1997) was an experimental physicist who made several important contributions to nuclear physics. Wu worked on the Manhattan Project – a top-secret program for the production of nuclear weapons during World War II and helped to develop a process for separating uranium into U235 and U238. She also developed improved Geiger counters to measure nuclear radiation levels. At the time, it was believed that symmetry governed everything in nature – known as the law of Conservation of Parity. Among her contributions, Wu is best known for designing the Wu experiment in which she measured the decay of supercooled radioactive cobalt to investigate if symmetry was also conserved in the behaviour of atomic particles. Her findings showed that symmetry during the decay of atomic particles was not conserved, contradicting the law of Conservation of Parity. In 1978, Wu was awarded the inaugural Wolf Prize, a prestigious award which recognizes achievements in the interest of mankind and friendly relations among people ... irrespective of nationality, race, colour, religion, sex or political views." For her research on radioactivity, Wu is often referred to as the "Chinese Marie Curie".
The wheat geneticist who discovered X and Y
Hitoshi Kihara (1893 – 1986) was one of the most famous Japanese geneticists of the 20th century. After graduating from Hokkaido Imperial University, he spent much of his life researching wheat genetics at Kyoto University, the National Institute of Genetics and the Kihara Institute for Biological Research. One of his most significant contributions was identifying sex chromosomes (X and Y) in flowering plants. He also determined the minimum number of chromosomes with all genes essential for wheat to be viable versus fully fertile. Proposing the concept of a genome was another of Kihara’s notable achievements. Using his expertise in chromosomes and genome analysis, he identified the ancestors of cultivated wheat and bred the seedless watermelon. In 1946, Kihara wrote: "The history of the earth is recorded in the layers of its crust; the History of all organisms is inscribed in the chromosomes." The Kihara prize, named in his honour, is awarded by the Genetics Society of Japan to researchers for major contributions to the field. Besides being an energetic scientist, Kihara was an accomplished athlete. He was one of the first skiers in Japan, and led the Japanese Olympic ski team in 1960 and 1964.
The botanist who overcame the odds
Kono Yasui (16 February 1880 – 24 March 1971) was a Japanese botanist who researched the genetics of poppies, corn and spiderworts and surveyed the plants that had been affected by the nuclear fallout after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A pioneer in many ways, Yasui was the first Japanese woman to receive a doctoral degree in science and also the first Japanese woman to publish in an international journal. In 1929, Yasui founded the cytology journal Cytologia. Growing up, Yasui’s family encouraged her to pursue her passions, even if they conflicted with gender norms of the time. The Japanese government initially rejected her application to study in America on the belief that “a woman cannot achieve much in science.” She was only allowed to study overseas on the condition that she listed “home economics research” alongside “scientific research” as her areas of study and that she agreed not to marry. After she returned to Japan, Tokyo Imperial University awarded her a doctoral degree in science for her research on how plants turned into coal, even though she was not an official student. After World War II, Yasui played a pivotal role in the transformation of Tokyo Women’s Higher Normal School into a comprehensive university for women, renamed Ochanomizu University. Together with fellow scientist Chika Kuroda, she established the Yasui-Kuroda Scholarship to provide educational opportunities for young female researchers.
The economist who advocated for agriculture
U Hla Myint (1920 – 2017) was a celebrated economist from Myanmar. Considered a prodigy, he was admitted to Rangoon University to study economics when he was just 14 years old. He went on to earn a Ph.D. at the London School of Economics (LSE). His thesis formed the foundation of his book, “A Theory of Welfare Economics,” which strongly influenced the field. Hla Myint highlighted the importance of free trade, capital accumulation and international specialization for economic development. He particularly stressed the importance of improving agriculture first, which helped provide the foundation for rapid growth in other Asian countries, such as Taiwan and South Korea. He tried to return to teach and work in Myanmar several times, but conflict and political turmoil pushed him back to the U.K., where he taught at the University of Oxford and LSE. For example, he was drafted to serve as the government’s economic advisor shortly after independence in 1948, but found his advice unheeded by the government, which paid farmers less for rice than the world market price. Despite the struggles, Hla Myint was cautiously optimistic about Myanmar’s economic development. He maintained that the progress, although slow, could prevent the country from returning to economic isolation.
The parasitologist who studied flatworms
Susan Lim (14 February 1952 – 2 August 2014) was a Malaysian parasitologist who specialized in studying a class of flatworms, the Monogeans, which are parasites of fishes. Monogean flatworms are of significant economic importance as they can severely affect fishes reared on farms for food. Lim described more than 100 new species of monogeans and discovered a new attachment mechanism. Lim became the sixth most productive monogean researcher and the most prolific female one. She was also the first and only Malaysian elected to the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. Four monogean flatworm species are named in her honour.
A hero of the environment
Võ Quý (31 December 1929 – 10 January 2017) was a Vietnamese ornithologist who studied the destruction of tropical forests and agricultural lands in Vietnam by Agent Orange, a herbicide used by the U.S. military during the Vietnam War. In addition to planning forest restoration projects, Quý rediscovered the rare eastern sarus crane, an endangered species that had vanished during the war. He helped establish a treaty with Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos to protect migratory birds. His other contributions include discovering a new species of pheasant and publishing more than one hundred books, including The Birds of Vietnam, the first zoological book written by a Vietnamese scientist. Quý founded several conservation organizations in Vietnam, including the Center for Natural Resources Management and Environmental Studies (CRES), Vietnam’s first environmental research and training institute. For his contributions to scientific research and environmental conservation, Quý was awarded the Blue Planet Prize in 2003 and selected as one of the Heroes of the Environment by Time Magazine in 2008. (Credit: Original photograph by Bui Tuan)
The doctor who studied blood disorders using zebrafish
Barry Paw (29 August 1962 – 28 December 2017) was a biologist and oncologist who discovered several novel genes and their functions in red blood cells. Paw dedicated his research career to studying the development of red blood cells. His team was the first to use zebrafish as a model to identify mutations that cause anaemia, thus pioneering the use of zebrafish for analysing genes responsible for diseases in humans. Paw’s research led to new discoveries about blood disorders in humans. When he was a child, Paw immigrated to the U.S. from Myanmar as a refugee. He is remembered as an outstanding mentor who cared deeply about the professional development of his trainees.
The biologist who sequenced jute, fungus, papaya and rubber
Maqsudul Alam (14 December 1954 – 20 December 2014) was a biologist from Bangladesh who is renowned for his research on genome sequencing. During his career, Alam led several international genome sequencing projects. He is especially recognized for decoding the genome sequences of two varieties of jute, an economically important plant used as a natural fiber. Alam and his team also sequenced the pathogenic soil fungus Macrophomina phaseolina, which infects many crops. The genomes of genetically modified papaya and rubber were also sequenced under Alam’s leadership. Alam’s work on genome sequencing led to a greater understanding of the functions of genes in plants and paved the way for genetic engineering to improve the quality of crops such as jute.
The Father of Thai orchids
Rapee Sagarik (4 December 1922 – 17 February 2018) was Thailand’s renowned expert on orchids. Sagarik dedicated his career to the research of native orchids in Thailand. He served as the president of Kasetsart University from 1972 to 1980 and was also the Deputy Minister of Agriculture. Sagarik’s interest in orchids began as a boy, when he nursed some sick orchids back to health. Through his research on orchids, especially in the development of hybrid flowers, Sagarik helped to establish the orchid industry in Thailand, now the world’s leading exporter of orchids. He started the first orchid library in Thailand and founded the Orchid Society of Thailand. A variety of orchid, the Pecteilis sagarikii Seident, has been named in his honour.
The father of videoconferencing
Gregorio Y. Zara (8 March 1902 – 15 October 1978) was a Filipino engineer and physicist best remembered for inventing the first two-way video telephone. Zara’s video telephone invention enabled the caller and recipient to see each other while conversing, laying the foundation for video-conferencing. Zara was an outstanding student who graduated valedictorian in elementary and high school before obtaining a scholarship to study mechanical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He went on to graduate with highest distinction in aeronautical engineering and physics from the University of Michigan and the University of Paris, respectively. Zara held 30 patents for devices and equipment. Other notable creations include an induction compass used by pilots for direction, a solar-powered water heater and an alcohol-fuelled aeroplane engine. Zara also discovered a law of electrical kinetic resistance known as the Zara effect.
A true Renaissance man
Salimuzzaman Siddiqui (19 October 1897 – 14 April 1994) was an artist and chemist from Pakistan whose research focused on natural products from plants. While studying chemistry at the University of Frankfurt, Siddiqui’s paintings were exhibited in art galleries alongside renowned artists. In his career, Siddiqui isolated medicinal compounds from native plants in Asia such as Neem (Azadirachta indica) and the devil pepper (Rauwolfia), discovering nine new alkaloid compounds from Rauwolfia. Siddiqui also discovered that compounds extracted from a medicinal plant called Holarrhena antidysenterica could treat dysentery, an inflammatory disease affecting the intestine. Siddiqui established several science councils, societies and research institutes in Pakistan. For his accomplishments in art and science, Siddiqui is often hailed as a visionary and a true Renaissance man.
The engineer whose alloys made aircraft fly faster
Abdus Suttar Khan (c. 1941 – 31 January 2008) was a Bangladeshi engineer who spent a significant part of his career conducting aerospace research with NASA, United Technology and Alstom. Khan invented more than forty alloys for commercial applications in space shuttles, jet engines and industrial gas turbines. The alloys were designed to be used at high temperatures, such as gas turbine blades and jet engines. They were also coated with environmentally resistant coatings. By making engines lighter, these alloys enabled aircraft to fly faster. One of Khan’s inventions, high strength nickel alloys, increased fuel efficiency of F-15 and F-16 fighter engines. Khan held more than 30 patents and received several awards from NASA, the US Air Force, United Technology and Alstom. Khan was also actively involved in serving the Asian community in the United States, such as raising money for Bangladeshi flood victims in 1991.
The presidential engineer
Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie (25 June 1936 – 11 September 2019) was an Indonesian engineer who was President of Indonesia from 1998 to 1999. Before venturing into politics, Habibie worked for German aircraft manufacturing company Messerschmitt to develop the Airbus A-300B aircraft. As an aeronautics engineer in Germany, he developed theories on thermodynamics, construction and aerodynamics, which became known as the Habibie Factor, Habibie Theorem and Habibie Method, respectively. Upon returning to Indonesia, Habibie became a government adviser and chief of a new aerospace company. Later, he headed the Agency for Technology Evaluation and Application. In these roles, Habibie supervised the heavy machinery, steel, electronics and telecommunications industries as well as unveiled the first aeroplane developed in Indonesia.
The vitamin pioneer
Umetaro Suzuki (7 April 1874 – 20 September 1943) was a Japanese scientist best remembered for his research on beriberi, a disease caused by vitamin B1 deficiency, characterized by limb stiffness, paralysis and pain. Suzuki discovered that consumption of rice bran prevented beriberi and was the first to successfully extract vitamin B1 from rice bran. Through experiments, Suzuki confirmed that vitamin B1 was essential to prevent beriberi, thus laying the foundation for vitamin science. Suzuki’s findings were initially dismissed by the medical community which thought beriberi was caused by microbial infection, until biochemist Casimir Funk reported he had crystallized a vitamin B compound from rice bran. In addition to isolating vitamin B1, Suzuki also extracted vitamin A from cod liver oil and invented a synthetic saké that did not require preservatives.
The immunologists who studied allergic reactions
Husband and wife team, Kimishige (3 December 1925 – 6 July 2018) and Teruko Ishizaka (28 September 1926 – 4 June 2019) discovered the antibody class Immunoglobulin E (IgE) that triggers allergic reactions. They also discovered that IgE antibodies attach to white blood cells, known as mast cells, releasing histamine, which causes allergic reactions. A pioneer of her time, Teruko earned a M.D. and Ph.D. in medical science from the Tokyo’s Women’s Medical University and from the University of Tokyo respectively. Teruko was the head of the Division of Allergy at the La Jolla Institute for Immunology, while Kimishige was the first scientific director of the institute. The Ishizakas supported young scientists and encouraged a collaborative spirit among the researchers at the institute. On retirement, the couple moved to Teruko’s hometown, Yamagata, Japan, where Kimishige was a specially invited professor at Yamagata University. Throughout their careers, the duo co-authored over 100 papers and reviews on allergy-related topics and won several awards. (Photo courtesy of Yamagata University, Faculty of Medicine)
The biochemist who uncovered protein unfolding
Hsien Wu (24 November 1893 – 8 August 1959) is widely regarded as the founder of biochemistry and nutrition science in China. He was the first to propose that protein denaturation was caused by the unfolding of the protein, instead of chemical alteration. He also developed the first assay to measure blood-glucose, known as the Folin-Wu method. Wu noticed that many Chinese were malnourished and suspected that it was due to their unbalanced vegetarian diet. By studying the relationship between food and human health, Wu found that protein combinations were critical for a balanced diet and set up nutritional guidelines for a complete diet. The findings, together with an analysis of the food composition in China and a nutrition survey, were the first systematic study of nutrition in China. Wu was a prolific researcher who published 163 papers in areas such as protein denaturation, nutrition and immunochemistry.
The founder of the Ramachandran plot
Gopalasamudram Narayanan Ramachandran (8 October 1922 – 7 April 2001) is best known for developing the Ramachandran plot to understand the structure of short chains of amino acids, known as peptides. He was also the first to propose the triple-helical model for the structure of collagen. Most of Ramachandran’s major discoveries were made when India had just achieved independence, a time when scientific research was a low priority. Ramanchandran established the molecular biophysics departments at the University of Madras and the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, which have become internationally recognized centres for biophysics research and graduate education in India.
The mathematical genius with no formal training
Srinivasa Ramanujan (22 December 1887 – 26 April 1920) was a math prodigy and widely considered one of India’s greatest mathematicians. Despite having almost no formal training in mathematics, he made substantial contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite series and continued fractions. His most famous achievements include the Ramanujan Conjecture, a mathematical statement that has not been fully proven, and the Hardy-Ramanujan number 1729, the smallest number expressible as the sum of two cubes in two different ways. In his short life, Ramanujan recorded thousands of results in three notebooks and a sheaf of papers (the fourth lost notebook). His notebooks, known as Ramanujan notebooks, still inspire mathematical works decades later.
The botanist who sweetened sugarcane
Janaki Ammal Edavalath Kakkat (4 November 1897 – 7 February 1984) was an Indian botanist who studied plant chromosomes and genetics. When she was a child. Kakkat’s parents encouraged her intellectual pursuits. After several teaching stints in India and US, Kakkat received a fellowship to pursue a Doctor of Science in botany in the US, becoming one of the few Asian women to be conferred a D.Sc. by the University of Michigan. Her research on chromosome numbers in plants was vital in the selection of varieties for cross-breeding to produce sweeter sugarcane. Kakkat created a high-yielding variety of sugarcane, a new variety of eggplant named Janaki Brengal, and a variety of magnolias named Magnolia Kobus Janaki Ammal.
An advocate for science in developing countries
Mohammad Abdus Salam (29 January 1926 – 21 November 1996) was a theoretical physicist and the first Pakistani to receive a Nobel Prize in science. He shared the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics with Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg for contributions to the electroweak unification theory, which explains the unity of the weak nuclear force and electromagnetism. For more than 40 years, Salam was a prolific researcher in theoretical elementary particle physics, contributing to many discoveries in the field of subatomic particles. A firm believer that "scientific thought is the common and shared heritage of mankind,” he founded Pakistan's space programme, and the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Italy, to support researchers from developing countries.
The father of Raman spectroscopy
Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (7 November 1888 – 21 November 1970) was an Indian physicist who performed ground-breaking research in the field of light-scattering. He is best known for discovering that when light passes through a material, some of the deflected light changes wavelength and amplitude – a phenomenon which became known as Raman scattering. The principles of Raman scattering and the Raman effect are applied in Raman spectroscopy, a technique widely used for analysis and identification of materials. For his pioneering work, Raman was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1930.
The mathematician who drew doodles
Mathematician Maryam Mirzakhani (12 May 1977 – 14 July 2017) was the first and only woman and Iranian to date to win the Fields Medal in 2014 for her work on curved surfaces. She liked to focus on particularly difficult areas of theoretical mathematics and geometry, and in her short life, made several important contributions to understanding mathematical objects called Riemann surfaces. Describing herself as a “slow” mathematician who appreciated the beauty in mathematics, Mirzakhani often drew doodles on sheets of paper and wrote mathematical formulas around the drawings.
The chemist who discovered a new taste
Kikunae Ikeda (8 October 1864 – 3 May 1936) was a Japanese chemist who discovered the fifth basic taste, umami. Ikeda was curious about the chemical basis of taste, especially why his favourite dashi broth made with kombu, a type of kelp, was particularly delicious. After analysing the chemical composition of kombu, Ikeda extracted glutamate, the compound which was responsible for the savoury flavour. Ikeda named the fifth taste umami, meaning savouriness in Japanese. In 1908, Ikeda acquired a patent for the mass production of glutamate and together with Saburosuke Suzuki II, set up the company Ajinomoto to produce glutamate in the form of monosodium glutamate (MSG).
"I know only butterflies."
Joo-myung Seok (November 13, 1908 – October 6, 1950) was a Korean butterfly entomologist who made important contributions to the taxonomy of the native butterfly species in Korea. By measuring the wing length and comparing the patterns of over 160,000 cabbage butterflies collected throughout Korea, Seok concluded that about 20 previously classified species were actually all the cabbage white butterfly. Seok organized the butterflies of Korea into about 250 species, a reduction from the 921 species categorized previously. Seok was also a linguist and proponent of non-violence. On October 6, 1950, Joo-myung Seok was mistaken for a communist soldier and shot. It is said that his last words were “I know only butterflies.”
The botanist who developed the Jeju tangerine
Woo Jang-choon (8 April 1898 – 10 August 1959) was a Korean-Japanese agricultural scientist and botanist. Woo performed horticultural research, first in Japan, then in Korea. Although Woo faced discrimination as a Korean working in Japan, he was a dedicated mentor who guided several Japanese students. When he returned to Korea, Woo developed high quality seeds for staple crops such as cabbages, peppers and onions to improve crop production in South Korea during the 1950s after the country gained independence from Japan. Other significant contributions from his research include disease-resistant seed potatoes as well as the Jeju variety of tangerine.
A man of the stars
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (19 October 1910 – 21 August 1995) was an Indian astrophysicist who studied the structure and evolution of stars. Chandrasekhar showed that the mass of a white dwarf star could not exceed 1.4 times that of the sun, otherwise they would explode or form black holes when they died – a metric named the Chandrasekhar limit. For this discovery, Chandrasekhar, along with William A. Fowler, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1983. A dedicated mentor who cared for the personal and intellectual well-being of his students, Chandrasekhar taught courses at the University of Chicago while he was working at the Yerkes Observatory.
The scientist who discovered why jellyfish glow
Osamu Shimomura (27 August 1928 – 19 October 2018) was a Japanese organic chemist and marine biologist who dedicated his career to understanding how organisms emitted light. When he was working at a munitions factory near Nagasaki during World War II, the atomic bomb dropped on the city. Shimomura walked home in a shower of black radioactive rain and may have escaped its deadly effects by taking a quick bath. Shimomura showed that the light-emitting apparatus of the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in jellyfish was contained within the protein, suggesting that the GFP gene may be used as an imaging tool. Since its discovery, the GFP gene has been widely used as a tag to visualize the expression of other genes. For the discovery of GFP, Shimomura, together with Martin Chalfie and Roger Tsien, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2008.
The palaeontologist who discovered dinosaurs in the Gobi Desert
Rinchen Barsbold (born 21 December 1935) is a Mongolian palaeontologist and geologist who was instrumental in discovering and recovering one of the largest dinosaur collections in the world from the Gobi Desert in Mongolia and China. When studying fossils from the Gobi Desert, he observed that many features previously only known from birds were also present in different lineages of theropod dinosaurs. This observation provided early evidence that modern birds evolved from dinosaurs, a theory that has since been established as accurate. His work not only helped clarify late stages of dinosaur evolution in Eurasia, it also advanced Mongolia’s international reputation in the field.
The father of radio science
Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose (30 November 1858 – 23 November 1937) was a scientist and inventor who contributed to a wide range of scientific fields such as physics, botany and biology. Throughout his life, Bose conducted research selflessly without desire for personal gains or fame. Bose showed that plants, like animals, react to stimuli through the transmission of electrical impulses. He invented the Crescograph – a device which measures tiny reactions and changes in plant cells in response to stimuli. Bose also made many important contributions to the field of radio science. He developed an improved coherer - a sensitive device to detect radio waves and invented the Crystal Detector, which inspired the first radio receivers. A crater on the moon is named after him. Bose was also a pioneer of science fiction in Indian literature and one of his stories The Story of the Missing won a writing contest organized by a hair-oil company.
The couple who primed DNA replication
Tsuneko (7 June 1933) and Reiji Okazaki (8 October 1930 – 1 August 1975) were a Japanese couple who discovered Okazaki fragments – short sequences of DNA that are synthesized during DNA replication and linked together to form a continuous strand. The couple met in Nagoya University and after obtaining PhDs, started a laboratory to conduct research on DNA replication. Funds were tight and the Okazakis often had to pay for research supplies themselves. After Reiji’s death from leukemia at the age of 44 from radiation exposure during the dropping of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima in World War II, Tsuneko continued their work, while raising their two children. At the time, female scientists were not recognized as full-fledged researchers in Japan and Tsuneko was encouraged to give up research to raise her young family. With support from the scientific community and a neighbour who helped care for her children, Tsuneko discovered that Okazaki fragments were the starting points of DNA replication. Since then, she has received multiple honours and awards, including the L’Oreal-UNESCO Award for Women in Science in 2000. Tsuneko has advocated for better support for women in science and lower education costs.
The scientist who described stars
Meghnad Saha (6 October 1893 – 16 February 1956) was an Indian astrophysicist best known for formulating the Saha ionization equation which describes the chemical and physical properties of stars. The Saha equation relates the ionization state of a gas to the temperature of the light source. From the equation, the temperature of stars and relative abundance of chemical elements can be investigated from spectroscopic data. Saha was nominated repeatedly but unsuccessfully for the Nobel Prize in Physics. In addition to his contributions to astrophysics, Saha was also active in politics and education. He founded the journal Science and Culture, helmed several research institutes and scientific societies, and was elected to the Parliament of India in 1952.
The biologist who used mathematics to explain evolution
Motoo Kimura (13 November 1924 – 13 November 1994) was a Japanese theoretical population geneticist who is best remembered for developing the neutral theory of molecular evolution. Using diffusion equations to calculate the probability of beneficial, harmful or neutral genetic changes, he combined population genetics with molecular biology to explain that most mutations are neutral and spread through populations by chance. As a young student, Kimura was interested in plants and excelled in Mathematics. While studying the chromosome structure of lilies, Kimura connected his interests in botany and mathematics, becoming one of few biologists who excelled in both fields.
The chemist who studied the structures of pigments
Chika Kuroda (24 March 1884 – 8 November 1968) was a Japanese chemist whose research focussed on the structures of natural pigments. Kuroda determined the molecular structure of shikonin, the pigment in purple gromwell (Lithospermum erythrorhizon) as well as the structure of carthamin, the red pigment in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius). Her extraction of quercetin crystals from onion skin led to the development of the antihypertensive drug Kerutin C. Kuroda was a pioneer in many ways. She was amongst the first female students to be admitted to Tohoku Imperial University when it started accepting females and became the first woman in Japan to receive a Bachelor of Science. Kuroda was also the second woman in Japan to receive a doctorate in Science.
The chemist who probed the origins of life
Cyril Andrew Ponnamperuma (16 October 1923 – 20 December 1994) was a Sri Lankan chemist who was interested in the origins of life on Earth. His research in chemical evolution showed how inanimate molecules may have given rise to the building blocks of life – a process known as abiogenesis. About 4 billion years ago, chemicals from Earth’s atmosphere came in contact with energy in warm oceans. In this “primordial soup”, atoms and molecules came together to form the precursors of life, which subsequently evolved into living things. While at Ames Laboratory, Ponnamperuma synthesized the building blocks of RNA and DNA as well as the universal energy currency ATP, further showing that organic matter may have originated from chemical compounds. Later in his career, Ponnamperuma embraced the idea that hydrothermal deep-sea vents were the cradles of life, where early organisms exploited chemical gradients to drive synthesis of ATP. Further investigations into the origins of life are ongoing. Ponnamperuma was also actively involved in astrobiology research and was the principal investigator for analysis of lunar soil brought to Earth by Project Apollo.
The scientist who discovered artemisinin
Tu Youyou (born 30 December 1930) is a Chinese pharmaceutical scientist who was awarded the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for her work on extracting artemisin from sweet wormwood to treat malaria. Tu performed her research during the Cultural Revolution in China, when scientists were persecuted. Trained in traditional Chinese medicine, she screened over 2,000 traditional Chinese recipes and made 380 herbal extracts, from 200 herbs, before discovering that artemisinin from sweet wormwood could inhibit the malaria parasite. Her work has helped save millions of lives in South China, Southeast Asia, Africa, and South America where malaria is prevalent. Photo shows her talking with her tutor Lou Zhicen at the China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences in the 1950s.
The first female doctor in Korea
Esther Park (1877-1910), born Kim Jeom-dong, was the first female Korean physician to practise modern medicine in Korea. As a student, Park worked as a translator for American medical missionary Rosetta Sherwood Hall, who inspired Park to become a physician. After studying medicine in the US, Park returned to Korea and worked at the nation’s first hospital for women, Bogu-yeogwan. During the first 10 months there, Park helped more than 3,000 patients. She often travelled to remote villages, providing free medical services. Recognizing the importance of female education, she also trained the first generation of Korean female doctors.
The father of fibre optics
Charles Kuen Kao (Nov. 4, 1933 to Sept. 23, 2018) was an engineer who is regarded as the father of fibre optics. His work in the 1960s on long distance signal transmission using very pure glass fibres revolutionized telecommunications, enabling innovations such as the Internet. Kao shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2009 for this achievement. Born in Shanghai, he lived and worked in Hong Kong, the UK, Europe and the US, including at the Standard Telecommunications Laboratory and The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
A woman ahead of her time
Indian organic chemist Asima Chatterjee (1917 to 2006) studied the medicinal properties of plant products, especially compounds known as vinca alkaloids. Growing up, she shared her father’s interest in botany and pursued higher education during a period when it was unusual for women to attend university. In 1944, she became the first woman in India to be awarded a Doctor of Science. Chatterjee’s research led to the development of an anti-epileptic drug, Ayush-56, as well as several antimalarial drugs. A prolific scientist, Chatterjee published approximately 400 papers in national and international journals.
Sparking the cultured pearl industry
The techniques that make industrial pearl culturing possible were developed over a century ago at the Misaki Marine Biological Station in Japan. Founded in 1886, MMBS is one of the world’s oldest marine stations and is part of the University of Tokyo’s Graduate School of Science. The station’s first director, Professor Kakichi Mitsukuri, emphasized to Kokichi Mikimoto in 1890 that stimulating pearl sac formation was important for pearl growth, and they went on to successfully develop methods for culturing pearls. Their achievements are credited with laying the foundation for today’s pearl farming industry.
Nobel-worthy cancer research
In 1915, pathologist Katsusaburo Yamagiwa and his research assistant Koichi Ichikawa became the first to prove that chronic exposure to chemicals can cause cancer. At Tokyo Imperial University, they induced tumour growth by rubbing coal tar on rabbit ears. Yamagiwa was nominated for a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1925, 1926 and 1928, and again in 1936 with Ichikawa. They lost out to another scientist whose cancer research was soon found to be wrong, yet the prize was maintained. Today, the first samples of induced tumour are displayed in specimen rooms at the University of Tokyo and Hokkaido University, where Ichikawa worked in veterinarian medicine and comparative pathology.
Solid state ionics
Takehiko Takahashi of Nagoya University was the first to coin the term ‘solid ionics’ in 1967. The field of solid-state ionics originated in Europe, but Takehiko Takahashi of Nagoya University in Japan was the first to coin the term ‘solid ionics’ in 1967. ‘Solid-state ionics’ first appeared in 1971 in another of his papers, and was likely a play on ‘solid-state electronics’, another rapidly growing field at the time. Over the decades, Japanese researchers have expanded the understanding of ionic conduction in solid compounds involving lithium, sodium-sulphur and perovskite structures, which led to the development of a variety of sensors and batteries.
Who was Ali?
Little is known about Ali, a teenager from Sarawak, Malaysia, who was chief assistant to the famous naturalist Alfred Wallace. Most of what is known comes from Wallace’s writings. Ali accompanied Wallace on expeditions throughout the Malay Archipelago from December 1855 to February 1862. Initially employed as a servant and cook, he became Wallace’s most trusted assistant. Ali’s skill and dedication to collecting bird specimens enabled several important scientific contributions, including the discovery of the Wallace’s Standardwing (Semioptera wallacii). This photograph is the only known image of Ali.
The first artificial snowflake
Japanese physicist Ukichiro Nakaya (1900-1962) made the world’s first artificial snowflakes. He started his research on snow crystals in the early 1930s at Hokkaido University, where there is an unlimited supply of natural snow in winter. By taking over 3,000 photographs, he established a classification of natural snow crystals and described their relationship with weather conditions. His work still remains a primary reference on crystal shapes. In 1936, after several years of research, he successfully produced the first artificial snow crystal on the tip of a single rabbit hair in his laboratory. "Snowflakes are letters sent from heaven," he wrote in his book “Snow Crystals: Natural and Artificial”.