Wako-Shi March 8th, 2012 - How do neurons in the brain communicate with each other? One common theory suggests that individual cells do not exchange signals among each other, but rather that exchange takes place between groups of cells. Researchers from Japan, the United States and Germany have now developed a mathematical model that can be used to test this assumption. Their results have been published in the current issue of the journal "PLoS Computational Biology".
A neuron in the neocortex, the part of the brain that deals with higher brain functions, contacts thousands of other neurons and receives as many inputs from other neurons. Previously, it has been very difficult to use measured signals to interpret the way the cells work together. Scientists at the RIKEN Brain Science Institute (BSI) in Japan have now joined forces with researchers at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and MIT in Boston, USA, to develop a mathematical model that can clarify the way neurons collaborate.
"From the many signals measured in parallel, the novel method filters the information on whether the neurons communicate individually or as a group", explains Dr. Hideaki Shimazaki from BSI. "Furthermore it takes into account that these groups of cells are not fixed but, instead, can organize themselves flexibly within milliseconds into groups of different composition, depending on the current requirements of the brain."
Prof. Sonja Grün from Forschungszentrum Jülich hopes that the method can help researchers to prove the existence of dynamic cell assemblies and clearly assign their activities to certain behaviors. The scientists already demonstrated that neurons work together when an animal anticipates a signal, which may allow it to have a more rapid or more sensitive response.
In future, the scientists hope to learn how to use their methods on the signals recorded from hundreds of neurons simultaneously. This would raise the probability of observing cell assemblies involved in planning and controlling behavior.
Dr. Hideaki Shimazaki
RIKEN Brain Science Institute
Prof. Dr. Sonja Grün
Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-6),
Computational and Systems Neuroscience
Tel: +49 2461 61-9302
Brain Science Promotion Division
RIKEN Brain Science Institute
Erhard Zeiss, Dr. Barbara Schunk
Tel: +49 2461 61-1841 or -8031
RIKEN is Japan's flagship research institute devoted to basic and applied research. Over 2500 papers by RIKEN researchers are published every year in reputable scientific and technical journals, covering topics ranging across a broad spectrum of disciplines including physics, chemistry, biology, medical science and engineering. RIKEN's advanced research environment and strong emphasis on interdisciplinary collaboration has earned itself an unparalleled reputation for scientific excellence in Japan and around the world.
About the RIKEN Brain Science Institute
The RIKEN Brain Science Institute (BSI) was established in October, 1997 to answer a growing need in society for cutting-edge brain science research. Since its establishment, BSI has attracted promising scientists domestically and internationally and brought together diverse research and human resources, and today enjoys an international reputation as an innovative center for brain science.
Research at BSI integrates a wide range of disciplines including medicine, biology, physics, technology, information science, mathematical science, and psychology. BSI's research objectives cover individual organisms, behavior, microscopic molecular structures of the brain, neurons, neurocircuits, cognition, memory, learning, language acquisition, and robotics.
pursues cutting-edge interdisciplinary research addressing pressing issues facing society today while at the same time developing key technologies for tomorrow. Research focuses on the areas of health, energy and environment, and information technology. The cooperation of the researchers at Jülich is characterized by outstanding expertise and infrastructure in physics, materials science, nanotechnology, and supercomputing. With a staff of about 4,700, Jülich - a member of the Helmholtz Association - is one of the largest research centres in Europe.