Biology

News

10 Mar 2021
Researchers at The University of Tokyo use the mathematics of adaptive learning and artificial intelligence to describe how T helper cells adjust the response of the vertebrate immune system, which may lead to new vaccines and treatments for infections
08 Mar 2021
Researchers at Kanazawa University report in Biosensors and Bioelectronics a successful test of a sensor for measuring hydrogen peroxide concentrations near cell membranes. The sensor has the potential to become a tool for new cancer therapies.
04 Mar 2021
Collecting liver tissue from 22 postoperative patients with long-term post-Fontan surgery, researchers have found a specific liver fibrosis to develop from the sinusoidal region which is difficult to accurately assess by conventional examination methods (ultrasound elastography and blood tests).
03 Mar 2021
Osaka City University finds that the chemical sesaminol, naturally occurring in sesame seeds, protects against Parkinson’s disease by preventing neuronal damage that decreases the production of dopamine. In vitro experiments show sesaminol handle oxidative stress in cells by regulating the production of reactive oxygen species and the movement of antioxidants. In vivo experiments reveal that a diet of sesaminol increases production of dopamine and significantly improve motor functions in mice.
02 Mar 2021
Researchers at The University of Tokyo develop a method of culturing meat in the laboratory in the form of millimeter-scale contractile beef muscle that closely simulates steak meat
28 Feb 2021
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), also known as Machado-Joseph Disease (MJD), describes the most common form of dominantly inherited ataxia in many populations worldwide, including Hong Kong and mainland China. SCA3 or MJD patients often present problems with gait and balance, blurred vision, and speech difficulties. The symptoms are progressive, and patients may eventually decline into a bed-ridden state. To date, SCA3 or MJD remains an incurable disorder. Collaborating with the University of Oxford, Professor Ho Yin Edwin Chan’s research team from the School of Life Sciences of The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) recently unveiled the counteracting relationship between pre-mRNA-processing factor 19 (Prpf19) and exocyst complex component 7 (Exoc7) in controlling the degradation of disease protein and neurodegeneration of the rare hereditary ataxia. The research findings have been published in the prestigious scientific journal, Cell Death & Disease.
26 Feb 2021
Tohoku University Researchers tweaked the diet of silkworms by adding cellulose nanofiber to their food. The resultant silk was stronger and more durable. This new method of realizing cellulose nanofiber synthesized silk is a sustainable way to produce biomaterials.
26 Feb 2021
Vitamin B6 may help calm cytokine storms and unclog blood clots linked to COVID-19's lethality. But research on it is lacking. A Hiroshima University professor calls on fellow scientists to study its potential role.
Cylindrotomid cranefly larva uncannily resembling mosses
25 Feb 2021
The roles of physical structures in animal camouflage are not well known. This study illuminates an overlooked role of a mechanism for camouflage. Dr. Imada investigated how larvae of the long-bodied crane flies achieve uncanny resemblance to mosses, highlighting the functions of their special body armature, "fleshy lobes". The lobes on the lateral sides of the body had internal muscles, suggesting that they are not only for tricking enemy's eyes, but may also aid the larvae in crawling.
25 Feb 2021
Expeditions planned this year will help scientists learn more about the species.
Chie Nakajima, DVM, Ph.D. and Kyoko Hayashida, DVM, Ph.D.
25 Feb 2021
This article is an excerpt from the Hokkaido University research magazine “Tackling Global Issues vol.3 Fighting the menace of zoonosis" (link below).
25 Feb 2021
New study shows that uneven accumulation of amyloid β is linked to olfactory dysfunction or partial loss of smell, an early symptom of Alzheimer’s disease
24 Feb 2021
Scientists have revealed glial cells act as amplifiers for synaptic signals and artificial control of the glial state can potentially be used for enhanced memory function of the brain.
City University of Hong Kong, CityU, CityUResearch
24 Feb 2021
Many genetic variants have been found to have a linkage with genetic diseases, but the understanding of their functional roles in causing diseases are still limited. An international research team, including a biomedical scientist from City University of Hong Kong (CityU), has developed a high-throughput biological assay technique which enabled them to conduct a systematic analysis on the impact of nearly 100,000 genetic variants on the binding of transcription factors to DNA. Their findings provided valuable data for finding key biomarkers of type 2 diabetes for diagnostics and treatments. And they believe that the new technique can be applied to studies of variants associated with other genetic diseases.
19 Feb 2021
An international team led by Professor Yilin Wu, Associate Professor of the Department of Physics at The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) has made a novel conceptual advance in the field of active matter science. The team discovered a new route in which the self-organisation of active fluids in space and time can be controlled by a single material property called viscoelasticity. This new finding may pave the way for fabricating a new class of self-driven devices and materials, such as the ability to control the rhythmic movement of soft robots without relying on electronic circuits, and for the study of microbial physiology. It has been published in the scientific journal Nature.
19 Feb 2021
Undergraduate students explore a more efficient way to measure protein-containing vessels released by cells
High-throughput sample preparation for mass spectrometry-based protein analysis using BAC-DROP
18 Feb 2021
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis enables high-resolution separation of proteins extracted from biological samples, but it requires more than one day of pretreatment to recover the separated proteins trapped inside the gel for detection by mass spectrometry. BAC-DROP, our novel electrophoresis technology, uses a dissolvable form of polyacrylamide gel, which allows sample pretreatment to be completed in about 5 hours. The developed technology will enable the rapid diagnosis of viruses and disease protein markers.
Akihiko Sato, DVM, Ph.D.
18 Feb 2021
This article is an excerpt from the Hokkaido University research magazine “Tackling Global Issues vol.3 Fighting the menace of zoonosis" (link below).
17 Feb 2021
Researchers from DGIST have now found a way to keep living, wet cells viable in an ultra-high-vacuum environment, using graphene, allowing—like never before—accurate high-resolution visualization of the undistorted molecular structure and distribution of lipids in cell membranes. This could enhance our bioimaging abilities considerably, improving our understanding of mechanisms underlying complex diseases such as cancers and Alzheimer’s
Yoshihiro Sakoda, DVM, Ph.D.
12 Feb 2021
This article is an excerpt from the Hokkaido University research magazine “Tackling Global Issues vol.3 Fighting the menace of zoonosis" (link below).
When quiescent neural stem cells in the fruit fly larval brain are activated, they can generate new neurons. In the image, the nucleus of quiescent neural stem cells is labelled by a marker of neural stem cells named Deadpan in magenta, and the cell outline is marked in green.
11 Feb 2021
A brain enzyme activates dormant neural stem cells, revealing how defects in its gene could lead to neurodevelopmental disorders.
City University of Hong Kong, CityU, CityUResearch
10 Feb 2021
The global problem of unowned domestic cats, driven by the cats’ phenomenal reproductive success, carries significant economic, animal welfare and biodiversity costs. Big-data research led by an expert on veterinary medicine and infectious diseases at City University of Hong Kong (CityU), has found that although more than 80% of cats in Australia were desexed, only a fraction have had surgery before reaching puberty, thus creating a “pregnancy gap”. To close this gap and prevent unwanted litters, it is recommended that the age of desexing is before four months.
10 Feb 2021
In a study published in Gastroenterology – Researchers at Osaka City University and The Institute for Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, in collaboration with Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, report the intestinal bacterial and viral metagenome information from the fecal samples of patients with recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI). This comprehensive analysis reveals the bacteria and phages involved in pathogenesis in rCDI, and their remarkable pathways important for the recovery of intestinal flora function.
09 Feb 2021
Tissue stem cells can self-renew and differentiate, supplying cells necessary for tissues at various developmental stages. However, detailed analysis in vivo is difficult, so the molecular mechanisms underlying the stemness of gastric tissue stem cells have remained a mystery. Here, by using organoids that mimic tissue structure and function in vivo and GeCKO screening to inactivate arbitrary genes, Alk, Bclaf3 and Prkra have been identified as genes regulating stemness.
Hiroshi Kida, DVM, Ph.D
04 Feb 2021
This article is an excerpt from the Hokkaido University research magazine “Tackling Global Issues vol.3 Fighting the menace of zoonosis" (link below).
Actin-dependent nuclear displacement observed in several mitotic mutants in fission yeast.
04 Feb 2021
Cells replicate their genetic material and divide into two identical clones to perpetuate life. Some cells pause in the process with a single, undivided nucleus. When the cell resumes division after such a pause, the nucleus can become caught in the fissure, splitting violently, and killing both cells. But that is not always the case. Researchers from Hiroshima University in Japan are starting to understand how active nuclear displacement rescues cell death.
Fledgling chicks of the Pacific-slope flycatcher
02 Feb 2021
It’s not only climate change impacting bird reproduction.
The Asian blue tick with its eggs
28 Jan 2021
A tick saliva study reveals immune responses that could lead to better protection for cattle.
28 Jan 2021
Researchers from The University of Tokyo have designed a new type of system using listening devices to detect and track deer positions in the wild
24 Jan 2021
Researchers at Kanazawa University report in Clinical Cancer Research that in the most common type of lung cancer, certain secondary mutations occurring with another gene alteration known as ALK make the efficacy of alectinib, an otherwise commonly used drug for treating lung cancer, become unfavorable. Combining alectinib with another kind of drug can overcome this adverse effect, however.

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