Salimuzzaman Siddiqui (19 October 1897 – 14 April 1994) was an artist and chemist from Pakistan whose research focused on natural products from plants. While studying chemistry at the University of Frankfurt, Siddiqui’s paintings were exhibited in art galleries alongside renowned artists. In his career, Siddiqui isolated medicinal compounds from native plants in Asia such as Neem (Azadirachta indica) and the devil pepper (Rauwolfia), discovering nine new alkaloid compounds from Rauwolfia. Siddiqui also discovered that compounds extracted from a medicinal plant called Holarrhena antidysenterica could treat dysentery, an inflammatory disease affecting the intestine. Siddiqui established several science councils, societies and research institutes in Pakistan. For his accomplishments in art and science, Siddiqui is often hailed as a visionary and a true Renaissance man.