From ripples to daydreams: the brain activity behind mind wandering

Researchers from Osaka University have found that a specific pattern of brain activity, known as “sharp-wave ripples,” is associated with thoughts that wander from the present situation. This activity begins in the hippocampus, a crucial brain region for memory formation and recall, and is linked to more vivid and less desirable thoughts. A better understanding of the relationship between sharp-wave ripples and these kinds of thoughts might be helpful for treating related conditions.

An epilepsy patient with intracranial electrodes implanted in the hippocampus answering questions about the content of the patient’s thoughts while measuring electroencephalography.


Researchers from Osaka University find that mind wandering, especially when associated with less pleasurable and more vivid and imaginative self-generated thoughts, is associated with a specific pattern of brain activity linked to memory and sleep

Osaka, Japan – Part of what makes us human is our ability to think about people, places, or events that aren’t currently present—but we still don’t know exactly how our brains do this. Now, researchers from Osaka University have identified a specific kind of brain activity linked with these kinds of thoughts, such as when we daydream or let our minds wander.

When we think about things that aren’t actually happening, like when we daydream, the brain is essentially making up information rather than receiving and processing it—for this reason, researchers classify it as a “self-generated” brain state. In a recent study published in Nature Communications, researchers from Japan have identified that these self-generated states are associated with a specific pattern of brain activity known as “sharp-wave ripples.” These ripples start in the hippocampus, a brain region that is essential for making and retrieving memories.

Questionnaire used to survey the content of thoughts and feelings.

To study the relationship between these sharp-wave ripples and different kinds of thoughts, the research team made use of the information that’s collected when patients with drug-resistant epilepsy are about to undergo surgery (to remove the starting point of the epileptic activity in the brain). Intracranial electrodes are implanted in the hippocampus in these patients and the activity in the brain is continuously tracked, so that the surgeons can identify the epileptic region and be sure that they aren’t removing a part of the brain that will have unexpected consequences.

“We asked patients undergoing this electroencephalographic brain monitoring for 10 days to complete an hourly questionnaire relating to their thoughts and emotions,” says lead author of the study Takamitsu Iwata. “We mainly wanted to see if we could identify any links between the recorded brain activity and how the patients were feeling and thinking at the time.”

In general, the sharp-wave ripples from the hippocampus were generated in patients at night (presumably during sleep). Furthermore, the research team noticed a link between increased sharp-wave activity and thoughts that were more vivid or imaginative and less desirable or task-related, i.e. when their minds wandered.

The larger the letters in the word cloud, the greater the effect on the sharp-wave ripples.

“Notably, although our study was conducted entirely on people with epilepsy, we did our best to remove epilepsy-related data so that the results are applicable to healthy populations,” explains Takufumi Yanagisawa, senior author of the study. “The similarities between many of our results and those of previous studies, using other species or methods, indicate that our approach worked well.”

There is increasing evidence that self-generated brain states, including mind wandering and intrusive thoughts, have complex links with intelligence, autism, attention deficit disorder, and happiness/well-being. A better understanding of the brain regions and activity that cause these states may therefore help people with a range of different conditions.

The article, “Hippocampal sharp-wave ripples correlate with periods of naturally occurring self-generated thoughts in humans,” was published in Nature Communications at DOI:

About Osaka University
Osaka University was founded in 1931 as one of the seven imperial universities of Japan and is now one of Japan's leading comprehensive universities with a broad disciplinary spectrum. This strength is coupled with a singular drive for innovation that extends throughout the scientific process, from fundamental research to the creation of applied technology with positive economic impacts. Its commitment to innovation has been recognized in Japan and around the world, being named Japan's most innovative university in 2015 (Reuters 2015 Top 100) and one of the most innovative institutions in the world in 2017 (Innovative Universities and the Nature Index Innovation 2017). Now, Osaka University is leveraging its role as a Designated National University Corporation selected by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to contribute to innovation for human welfare, sustainable development of society, and social transformation.

Published: 22 May 2024


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Japan Society for the Promotion of Science,
Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development,
Japan Science and Technology Agency