Brain

News

19 Mar 2021
Through a series of prosocial choice tasks, researchers reveal prosocial and antisocial characteristics in male convict cichlid fish. The fish distinguish between female breeding partners, unknown females, and rival males by adjusting their actions to either provide food for both them and the females or avoid providing food for the rival males.
10 Mar 2021
Researchers reveal the path of information received by the hippocampus. Using optogenetics during large-scale recordings of rat subiculum, they discovered that the subiculum distributes information from the hippocampus to 4 downstream regions of the brain. They observed that the theta and sharp-wave/ripples in the subiculum controlled information transmission with millisecond precision according to the target region. This provides the foundation for a comprehensive understanding of the hippocampal memory system.
03 Mar 2021
Osaka City University finds that the chemical sesaminol, naturally occurring in sesame seeds, protects against Parkinson’s disease by preventing neuronal damage that decreases the production of dopamine. In vitro experiments show sesaminol handle oxidative stress in cells by regulating the production of reactive oxygen species and the movement of antioxidants. In vivo experiments reveal that a diet of sesaminol increases production of dopamine and significantly improve motor functions in mice.
28 Feb 2021
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), also known as Machado-Joseph Disease (MJD), describes the most common form of dominantly inherited ataxia in many populations worldwide, including Hong Kong and mainland China. SCA3 or MJD patients often present problems with gait and balance, blurred vision, and speech difficulties. The symptoms are progressive, and patients may eventually decline into a bed-ridden state. To date, SCA3 or MJD remains an incurable disorder. Collaborating with the University of Oxford, Professor Ho Yin Edwin Chan’s research team from the School of Life Sciences of The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) recently unveiled the counteracting relationship between pre-mRNA-processing factor 19 (Prpf19) and exocyst complex component 7 (Exoc7) in controlling the degradation of disease protein and neurodegeneration of the rare hereditary ataxia. The research findings have been published in the prestigious scientific journal, Cell Death & Disease.
25 Feb 2021
New study shows that uneven accumulation of amyloid β is linked to olfactory dysfunction or partial loss of smell, an early symptom of Alzheimer’s disease
24 Feb 2021
Scientists have revealed glial cells act as amplifiers for synaptic signals and artificial control of the glial state can potentially be used for enhanced memory function of the brain.
24 Feb 2021
A research team from the School of Life Sciences at The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) has recently discovered that SOX9 protein is an essential regulatory factor of choroid plexus function that ensures the correct composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The finding, recently published in the prestigious scientific journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), has provided the scientific community a novel understanding to the molecular regulatory mechanisms behind the function of the blood-CSF barrier and lays the groundwork for developing novel therapeutic strategies for preventing and treating neurodevelopmental disorders.
11 Feb 2021
Research co-led by academics at City University of Hong Kong (CityU) has discovered that the phenomenon of human self-organisation known as synchronisation forms spontaneously to avoid inter-person collisions when the safety distance between pedestrians seems insufficient. The findings provided insights in preventing pedestrian synchronisation-induced wobbling effect in structures, ensuring pedestrian and transportation safety.
When quiescent neural stem cells in the fruit fly larval brain are activated, they can generate new neurons. In the image, the nucleus of quiescent neural stem cells is labelled by a marker of neural stem cells named Deadpan in magenta, and the cell outline is marked in green.
11 Feb 2021
A brain enzyme activates dormant neural stem cells, revealing how defects in its gene could lead to neurodevelopmental disorders.
03 Feb 2021
Researchers from the School of Chinese Medicine (SCM) at Hong Kong Baptist University (HKBU) have developed a Chinese medicine formula named NeuroDefend that offers a potential novel treatment for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Mouse model experiment results showed that the formula reduces the levels of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and insoluble hyperphosphorylated-tau protein, which are the major hallmarks of AD, in mice brains. It also improves cognitive function and memory in mice.
19 Jan 2021
Autism has a higher prevalence in males than females. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a common chemical found in plastics, our food, and even the human placenta. Higher prenatal exposure to BPA is thought to increase the risk of autism. Researchers have, for the first time, identified autism candidate genes that may be responsible for the sex-specific effects of BPA.
24 Dec 2020
Researchers at Tohoku University have developed the first all-in-one miniature pH probe for real-time investigations of intrinsic extracellular pH dynamics in the deep brain structures.
New IRAK4 mutations discovered
21 Dec 2020
Researchers baffled by an infant’s rare encephalitis case unusual in children found unheard-of mutations and a new way to examine the “immunity gene.”
16 Dec 2020
Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST) researchers gain deeper insight into a cell membrane channel, with potential implications for drug development.
16 Dec 2020
A research team used next-generation sequencing to illustrate the possible molecular mechanisms that cause the Fragile X syndrome in fetal brains.
15 Dec 2020
An AI might soon help stroke survivors get the right treatment by detecting a patient’s post-stroke depression type, a frequently seen neuropsychiatric manifestation after a stroke that could impair functional recovery.
20 Nov 2020
A research team, affiliated with South Korea's Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) has presented the whole-genome sequence and analyses of the endangered whale shark (Rhincodon typus), the largest extant fish on Earth.
20 Nov 2020
A new mechanism of action by which misfolded proteins cause indirect damage to neurons
02 Nov 2020
DGIST scientists are learning more about the molecular processes involved in the formation of well-communicating nerve fibres.
14 Sep 2020
Scientists at Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Korea, show that it is possible to distinguish between left-handed and right-handed people by noninvasively monitoring just their brain activity during passive tactile stimulation. These results are key in haptic research (the study of sensory systems) and have various important implications for brain–computer interfaces, augmented reality, and even artificial intelligence.
09 Sep 2020
Running is a fundamental mode of human movement that most of us perform effortlessly without conscious thought. Some may run regularly for exercise, or even undergo serious, professional training for completing marathons. This apparent ease of running belies the enormous biomechanical complexity of running, the coordinated control of which is accomplished by an intricate neuronal network in the brain and spinal cord.
01 Sep 2020
Researchers at the Smart-Aging Research Center (IDAC) at Tohoku University have developed an innovative training protocol that, utilizing immersive virtual reality (IVR), leads to real physical and cognitive benefits.
11 Aug 2020
Scientists from the Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea, discover a new way to diagnose Alzheimer’s disease by analyzing the levels of specific proteins in nasal discharge. This simple and inexpensive method could help in timely diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease, in order to start treatment as soon as possible, thus delaying disease progression.
30 Jul 2020
A study conducted over the past 18 years has found differences between lead exposure effects in young Japanese boys versus girls.
29 Jul 2020
Music training does not have a positive impact on children’s cognitive skills, such as memory, and academic achievement, such as maths, reading or writing, according to a study published in Memory & Cognition.
27 Jul 2020
Hokkaido University researchers have found a soft and wet material that can memorize, retrieve, and forget information, much like the human brain. They report their findings in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).
07 Jul 2020
The JUL 2020 regular issue of the Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences Research (JHSSR), Volume 2 (1) JUL. 2020 has been published ahead of time on 30 Jun 2020 and is now live at the Journal’s webpage.
12 Jun 2020
Researchers at the University of Tsukuba and RIKEN in Japan spark a hibernation-like state in mice—a species that does not naturally hibernate
04 Jun 2020
Researchers from University of Tsukuba and the University of Tokyo identify neurons responsible for memory consolidation during REM sleep
iCeMS glioma classification
03 Jun 2020
A highly accurate machine learning tool could help doctors tailor individualized treatments for people with glioma brain tumours.

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Researchers

Hokkaido University
Toru Kondo is Professor of the Division of Stem Cell Biology at the Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University.