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Asia Research News Editors Choice
07 Jun 2024
Blue energy future, Off switch for brain cells, New Japanese lily species, Generative AI in motion, Economies take off with new airports and Braille-shaped electrodes for retinal implants. Read all in the latest Editor's Choice. Plus SciCom Coffee with Catriona Child.
At the signing ceremony for the Comprehensive Collaborative Agreement held on June 5, 2024, at Hokkaido University. Kiyohiro Houkin, President, Hokkaido University (left), and Atsuyoshi Koike, President and CEO, Rapidus Corporation (right).
06 Jun 2024
Rapidus and Hokkaido University Sign Comprehensive Collaboration Agreement aiming to enhance scientific and technological capabilities and develop human resources through the semiconductor industry.
The partnership agreement signing ceremony. From left: Ms Sharon Fong, Senior Manager of Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation (HKSTP), Prof Paulina Wong, Head of the Science Unit at Lingnan University, Prof Lau Chi-pang, Mr Plato Yip, Chairperson of FoE (HK), Dr Jeffrey Hung, Chief Executive Officer of FoE (HK), Dr Ir. Rosiah Ho, Adjunct Assistant Professor of Lingnan University.
05 Jun 2024
On the occasion of World Environment Day today (5 June), the Science Unit of Lingnan University and Friends of the Earth (HK) (FoE (HK)) have signed a partnership agreement to launch the first Executive Certificate in Sustainable Finance & ESG Analytics for executives of higher education institutions in the Greater Bay Area (GBA), and aligned with the CESGA global certification. Acting in response to our era of digital transformation, this executive certificate training programme not only explores the concepts of Sustainable Finance, but also incorporates Lingnan’s expertise in Artificial Intelligence (AI) analytics, reflecting the global shift towards Sustainable Finance and the increasing integration of Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) factors in financial decision-making.
Lingnan University signs strategic cooperation framework agreement with the Shandong Hi-Speed Group and Rizhao Municipal People's Government. (From left: Mr Wang Qifeng, Chairman of Shandong Hi-speed Group; Mr Li Zaiwu, Rizhao Municipal Party Secretary and Chairman of the Municipal; and President Qin.)
29 May 2024
Lingnan University signed multiple significant strategic cooperation framework agreements yesterday (28 May) with Rizhao City, Shandong Province, Shandong Hi-Speed Group Co, Ltd. (Shandong Hi-Speed Group), Shandong Huge Dental Material Co., Ltd., and Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute Company Limited (ASTRI). These collaborations aim to leverage each party’s unique strengths in talent, research, and industry. Lingnan will conduct research projects with partner institutions, promote collaborative innovation, develop new quality productive forces, establish new research and development (R&D) institutions, accelerate the commercialisation of technological achievements, and cultivate a new generation of exceptional talent.
11 May 2024
ITEX 2024 Sets the Stage for Innovation and Investment
03 May 2024
A global study by an SUTD researcher in collaboration with scientists from Japan explores the economic benefits of airport investment in emerging economies using nighttime satellite imagery.
Lingnan University and PKU organise the first Lingnan-Yuanpei STEM Summer Academy.
26 Apr 2024
The launch ceremony for the Lingnan-Yuanpei STEM Summer Academy (LYSSA), jointly organised by Lingnan University and Yuanpei College (Yuanpei) of Peking University (PKU), was held recently on the Lingnan campus. Over 50 experts, project advisors and students from both universities attended in person or virtually. A hub cultivating Hong Kong’s and Beijing’s innovative and entrepreneurial talents, LYSSA encourages students from both universities to transform their creative ideas into grant-winning business plans. At the same time, they are expected to acquire liberal arts qualities and an entrepreneurial spirit.
Lingnan University holds first-ever Business Case Competition.
14 Apr 2024
To encourage students to develop interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary skills, Lingnan University held its first-ever Business Case Competition (LUBCC) on 13 April. The competition received strong support from six leading organisations from the government, and the business and charity sectors: the Regional Crime Prevention Office, New Territories North, Hong Kong Police Force (RCPO), Alibaba Cloud, Silence Limited, the Hong Kong and China Gas Company Limited (Towngas), Vitasoy International Holdings Limited (Vitasoy), and the Wai Yuen Tong Medicine Company Limited. Seventy-one teams of 284 Lingnan students from different academic backgrounds entered the competition.
Starch
19 Mar 2024
The 12th Starch Value Chain ASIA conference was held in Vientiane, at Crowne Plaza Hotel, from February 27 to 29, 2024. The conference encompassed four key themes: Asia’s starch markets, industrial and food-grade tapioca starch in Laos with expansion plans, sustainable climate-smart agri-technology for rice and cassava cultivation, and challenges for future growth in Asia's biogas-to-energy sector.
shipyard
26 Feb 2024
Researchers explore the benefits of export diversification in oil-rich Brunei, breaking free from the development economics "resource curse".
(From left to right) Business Faculty student Dai Yanyan wins second place in the Asian group individual performance category, while Zhao Yunying wins first place. The photo was taken with Prof Nancy Chen Yifeng, Associate Dean of Faculty of Business.
20 Nov 2023
A team of Business Faculty students from Lingnan University led by Prof Nancy Chen Yifeng, Associate Dean of the Faculty of Business, represented Hong Kong, China in the "National Sales Challenge," the longest-running university sales competition in the US, winning the championship in the final round of competition on 17 November 2023.
15 Sep 2023
- Modeled after a French curriculum; Local talent primed to make a global impact in fragrance industry
JHSSR Vol. 5 (1) Jul. 2023
14 Aug 2023
Greetings from JHSSR, Horizon is proud to announce the highly acclaimed publication of the latest issue of 2023, Vol. 5, Issue 1 (Jul. 2023). The issue is now live at the Journal’s webpage. You may explore our range of contributions within this Issue. Explore this issue, click the links below.
An electric car in Singapore
28 Jul 2023
Newcastle University (UK) and the Energy Research Institute at Nanyang Technological University hosted a UK-Singapore symposium funded by the UK Government in April 2023. It aimed to foster partnerships and research for widespread electric vehicle adoption. The event featured discussions on technology, economics, and policy over three days, encouraging joint collaboration in advanced electric transport research and commercialization.
04 Jul 2023
- DGIST’s Research Capacity Shines with 7th Global Ranking in Citations per Paper by Faculty Members - Securing 9th Place Overall in Korea and 2nd in Daegu-Gyeongbuk Region, Following Postech - DGIST Sets a Strong Precedent as a New University with Global Recognition, Showcasing Remarkable Research Capabilities and Educational Excellence
04 Jul 2023
- Principal Researcher Jinhyo Yun’s team at the DGIST publishes a comparative study on South Korea and Italy using the commons as a business model in one of the top international journals - This work opens new prospects in sustainable capitalism
04 Jul 2023
□ DGIST (President Kuk Young) celebrated the opening of the DGIST AI-SW Education and Research Center on Thursday, April 25. This momentous event took place at the “Daegu Smart City Center” in Suseong Alpha City, Daegu, and was graced by esteemed attendees, including President Kuk Young of DGIST and Lee Jong-hwa, Vice Mayor for Economic Affairs, Daegu Metropolitan City.
04 Jul 2023
DGIST (academia), Samsung C&T Corporation (industry), and MFR (research) entered into an MOU to conduct joint research on high-tech construction automation
04 Jul 2023
DGIST published a comparative study of the smart payment industry in Korea, China, and the UK in a top international journal
Recycling bin for used plastics
22 Jun 2023
An international team of researchers from India and Singapore, led by Associate Professor Kheng Lim Goh from Newcastle University in Singpaore, has examined the impact of plastic waste management on creating a new type of clean-energy device, Tribo-electric nanogenerator. It compares recycling practices in Singapore and India, highlighting the importance of waste policies and infrastructure for successful recycling of plastics for making the clean-energy device. Challenges include contamination and decreased material quality with recycling.
Letters in Applied Microbiology
07 Jun 2023
The peer-reviewed journal Letters in Applied Microbiology is recruiting its first intake of Junior Editors as part of its new drive to nurture early careers talent.
Pineapple and leaves
07 Jun 2023
Scientists from Thailand, France and Singapore have conducted groundbreaking research using both tiny cellulose nanofibers (CNF) and long pineapple leaf fibers (PALF) to create stronger materials. They added varying amounts of CNF to epoxy and found that 1% CNF greatly increased impact strength. PALF-epoxy composites showed significant flexibility and strength improvements. Combining CNF and PALF resulted in a remarkable increase in impact strength. The findings could revolutionize stronger material development.
DGIST Signs Business Agreement with YAK(Young Astronauts Korea) to Spread Space Science
31 Mar 2023
Lays the groundwork to host the National Aerospace Science Competition in H2 of 2023
16 Mar 2023
Annual innovation event brings together global innovators, entrepreneurs, researchers and scientists, and experts from various fields and industries to showcase their latest innovations, share ideas, and collaborate with industries to develop better technologies and solutions to shape our future. This is also a platform for innovators to meet potential investors and partners.
07 Mar 2023
To understand Hong Kong youth's opinions on employment, poverty, a decent life, and related policies, as well as their income and expenditure, a recent survey, entitled “How low is the minimum wage? Report on Employment Dilemmas of the Poor New Generation”, jointly conducted by Lingnan University (LU) Institute of Policy Studies (IPS) and the Centre for Cultural Research and Development, shows that about 40 per cent of the interviewees described themselves as living in poverty, and most young people working full-time indicated that the statutory minimum wage (MW) is too low and they do not benefit from it.
17 Oct 2022
The National Health Innovation Centre, Singapore (NHIC) has launched a Clinical Innovation and Adoption Initiative to nurture promising healthtech projects for adoption and scaling across healthcare clusters in Singapore.
17 Oct 2022
The Malaysia Technology Expo (MTE) 2022: SDG International Innovation Awards & Expo (SDGIIAE) returns for its 2nd edition and the awards encourage the development of innovative solutions for local and global challenges.
 MHI and Institut Teknologi Bandung Launch agreement
13 Oct 2022
The project will apply Indonesia’s Institut Teknologi Bandung's (ITB) specialized expertise in chemical reaction engineering to probe optimization of ammonia firing. Target set on achieving cleaner power generation in Indonesia, based on demonstration testing with H-25 gas turbine.
photo. abstract
07 Oct 2022
- Proposing a new decision-making model that adds ‘open innovation,’ the main topic of the 21st century economy, to the existing limited rationality model - Expected to present a practical way to overcome the growth limitations of the modern economic system.
04 Oct 2022
Punctuated equilibrium theory (PET) makes broad reference to the bureaucratic procedures that regulate budgetary decision-making and makes reasonable assumptions about the influence of these procedures on resource allocation. However, little is known about how the specific mechanisms work. A research led by Dr Xiao Hanyu, Assistant Professor at the Department of Asian and Policy Studies, The Education University of Hong Kong, examined how budgetary output patterns may be influenced by the strategic fiscal choices of governments. It explored how fiscal policymaking and fiscal management affect budgetary output to stimulate new ideas on how fiscal processes may work within the political structure to influence budgetary output patterns and the setting of policy agendas.

Events

10 Sep 2024
The event this year hence features a focused track on Biologics Digitalisation & AI on the first day, 10th of September. This congregation would be a platform to meet the leaders from the Biologics World of APAC, who have pioneered in adopting AI & Digitalisation in the R&D, Manufacturing/Bioprocessing,
23 Oct 2024
The 12th Annual Biologics World Taiwan (BWT) 2024 conference will go into a range of pivotal topics, including must-see innovations originating from Taiwan, best practices in clinical research and trials, optimization of upstream processing, cost reduction in downstream processes, advancements in CAR-T and stem cell therapy, compelling case studies in regenerative medicines, and more.
13 Aug 2024
The 13th Annual Biologics Manufacturing Korea (BMK) 2024 conference encompasses crucial themes such as upstream processing with a focus on high-throughput cell line development and cell culture, downstream processing involving product concentration and purification by chromatography, analytics and quality assurance, automation, Bioprocessing 4.0, and the digitalization landscape.
13 Aug 2024
Key themes from Vaccine World East Asia (VWEA) 2024 include the swift acceleration of research initiatives, the optimization of manufacturing capabilities, and the seamless integration of novel technologies poised to revolutionize vaccine development.
24 Oct 2023
This Forum will take place on 24 October 2023 in Kobe, Japan. It will be held in hybrid format (on-site and virtual).
04 Oct 2023
The 27th World Congress on Innovation & Technology (WCIT 2023) and the 6th International Digital Economy Conference Sarawak (IDECS 2023) are two major events in the global tech industry.
14 Sep 2023
Asia Pacific CGT Excellence Awards 2023 seeks to give recognition to exceptional Cell & Gene Therapy Pioneers, Researchers, Innovators & Manufacturers that facilitate fast advancement in new therapies, R&D and manufacturing.
14 Sep 2023
Asia Pacific Biologics CMO Excellence Awards 2023 seeks to give recognition to exceptional CMO & CDMO that facilitate biologics manufacturing excellence at enhanced speed, reduced cost, and superior quality from the biologics contract manufacturing space. 
18 Oct 2023
The Malaysia Technology Expo (MTE) 2023: Sustainable Development Goals International Innovation Awards & Expo (SDG IIAE) is the first in the region focused on recognizing innovations, initiatives, programmes and ideas which contribute to sustainability, eradicating poverty, improving well-being, protecting our planet, and building peace and prosperity.
24 Aug 2023
Using Data for Sustainability: An evening of Short Talks and Networking
03 Oct 2023
The Journal for Humanities and Social Sciences Research is calling for papers in conjunction with the Asia Smart Farming & Food Security Conference 2023, scheduled to take place from 3rd-6th October in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
17 Apr 2023
To achieve Net Zero, the governments of the UK and Singapore are targeting ambitious carbon reduction goals, and electromobility has emerged as a key strategy. Now, Newcastle University (UK) and ERI@N (Singapore) are jointly hosting an international event, known as the Electromobility symposium, in Singapore to debate and discuss experiences in implementing land transport electrification in Singapore and the UK, evaluate policy landscapes, and identify successes and obstacles to inform future strategies.
26 Jul 2023
BIO Asia–Taiwan is Asia's largest biotech networking event, and is jointly organized by the global Biotechnology Innovation Organization (BIO) and the Taiwan Bio Industry Organization (Taiwan BIO).
23 Dec 2022
This Forum will take place on 23rd December 2022 in Kobe, Japan. It will be held in hybrid format (on-site and on-line).
13 Sep 2022
Known as the Olympics of the World’s Tech Industry, WCIT2022 MALAYSIA sets out to be the gateway to Southeast Asia while connecting the world – a definitive global event of technology businesses.
11 Oct 2022
Taiwan Innotech Expo (TIE) is the leading invention show in Asia. The physical event will take place from October 13-15, 2022 at Taipei World Trade Center Hall 1.
28 Apr 2022
Organizers: Refinitiv, Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia, and Asian Development Bank
06 Sep 2022
Identity Week Asia is a conference and exhibition bringing together the brightest minds in the identity sector to promote innovation, new thinking, and more effective identity solutions.
21 Mar 2022
The annual Malaysia Technology Expo (MTE) is set to return virtually from 21-25 March 2022. 2021 has been an eventful year as we celebrated the 20th Anniversary of MTE amidst a pandemic. Pivoting to the virtual space has not diminished its presence and popularity of MTE’s awards but allowed a global audience to attend which would have been proven more difficult in a physical event.
06 Sep 2022
Themed “Security Transformation for the Next Normal – Evolution of Risk Management and Data Protection in a Post Pandemic World”, the 2-day Summit will focus on how the enterprises can transform their security successfully under the cyber security challenges and the escalating cyber threats for the next normal.
28 Sep 2021
TECHINNOVATION is a premier technology-to-industry matching event presented by IPI. It brings together international technology providers and enterprises to accelerate the commercialisation of emerging technologies, seed licensing opportunities and foster open innovation collaborations.
14 Jul 2021
Intelligent Mobility 2021 will offer a platform for industry experts, thought leaders, policy makers, city planners and researchers to discuss the future of mobility, growth opportunities emerging as a result of disruptive innovation, and the potential impact of new business models.
14 Oct 2021
Taiwan Innotech Expo (TIE) is the leading invention show in Asia. The event will take place from October 14-16, 2021 at Taipei World Trade Center Hall 1.
24 Nov 2020
The two-day strategic summit—”Intelligent Mobility: The Digital Acceleration“—will feature curated webinars, insightful panel discussions, and other online events.
27 Oct 2020
The Asia Clean Energy Summit 2020 is part of the Singapore International Energy Week 2020. It will feature a diverse line-up of events deep-diving into energy transition, floating solar, wind, electrification and energy storage.
18 Nov 2020
The Asia-Pacific Agri-Food Innovation Summit will focus on accelerating innovation in supply chain resilience, urban food systems, alternative proteins, and affordable nutrition. Will you be joining the conversation virtually on November 18-20?
19 Oct 2020
Theme of “Energising Sustainability” through green technologies to empower climate action today explores the integrated modes between green economy solutions and its applications to the aim of achieving sustainable development goals for various global industries.
08 Jul 2020
This program has identified many outstanding companies from the Automotive, Energy, Building & Environment industries to the Healthcare, Information Communication Technologies and Logistics sectors in Asia Pacific.
16 Jun 2020
Merging Tech and Marketing in an Increasingly Online World

Researchers

I'm currently an adjunct professor at the Asian Institute of Management in Manila. I crafted a course called Art-Science Thinking based on my dissertation on Culture as Transformative Innovation: Filipino Care in the Practice of Family Medicine. Since 2017, my consultancy & studio has been collaborating with the Dept. of Science & Technology in the Philippines.
UGANEESWARY SUPARMANIAM
Ts. Uganeeswary Suparmaniam, AMIChemE (UK) is a multiple award-winning young scientist, sustainability advocate, and climate activist attached to the HICoE-Centre for Biofuel and Biochemical Research, Institute of Self-Sustainable Building, PETRONAS University of Technology, Malaysia.
Andrei Popescu
Angel Investor and a Vision-driven entrepreneur/executive with career-long record of business growth and innovation.
Southeast Asia Media Studies Association
University professor with 20 years of experience in Thailand's secondary and higher education sectors.
Dr. Niranjan Devkota is a distinguished researcher in climate change, agriculture, and poverty. He actively contributes to policy dialogues and has extensive experience in governmental and non-governmental sectors, demonstrating his commitment to driving positive change.
Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST)
Jinhyo Joseph Yun
Dr. JinHyo Joseph Yun is a principal researcher at DGIST and a Professor at Open Innovation Academy of SOItmC.
Ms. Nagal is an alumna of the University, who graduated with a Bachelor’s degree in Hotel and Restaurant Management from the College of Tourism and Hospitality Management and a Master in Business Administration major in Entrepreneurship from the UST Graduate School.
The Education University of Hong Kong (EdUHK)
Professor Stephen Y. L. Cheung is the President and Chair Professor of Public Policy at The Education University of Hong Kong
Lingnan University (LU)
Leonard K Cheng
Professor Leonard K Cheng became President of Lingnan University of Hong Kong in September 2013. Prior to joining Lingnan University, he served as Dean of the School of Business and Management of the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST Business School) from 2009 to 2013.
Assistant Professor at the National University - Mall of Asia, College of Business & Technology. More than 10 years of experience in the academe.
Experienced Subject Matter Expert and Consultant with Leadership, Management, and Strategic Planning Skills. Proven expertise in course validation, curriculum development, and instructional design, bolstered by extensive experience as a Graduate School and Undergraduate Professor and Program Chairperson. Specializes in teaching and managing professional business subjects, delivering engaging instruction, designing curriculum, and leading academic programs. Demonstrated proficiency in leadership and staff management, fostering collaboration and excellence among team members. Background in sales, insurance, and marketing brings valuable industry insights to academic settings. Committed to promoting academic excellence, fostering student success, and driving organizational growth through innovative management methods, effective leadership, and strategic planning aligned with the organization's goals and objectives.
Lingnan University (LU)
Prof. Geng Cui
Professor Geng Cui's current research projects focus on examining the effect of user-generated content (UGC) such as product reviews, management responses, user profile pictures, and videos on consumer behavior and marketing performance through big data analytics, machine learning, and experiments.
Lingnan University (LU)
Prof. Peng Ling
Prof. Peng Ling is an Associate Professor at the Department of Marketing and International Business of Lingnan University.
Prasanna Lakmal
Prasanna Lakmal is a lecturer at the Department for Commerce & Financial Management of the University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka.
Universiti Malaysia Sabah
Dr. Connie Cassy Ompok is an early childhood education expert and a Senior Lecturer at the Faculty of Psychology and Education, Universiti Malaysia Sabah. She Started her career in Early Childhood Education as a preschool teacher (2004-2007), a lecturer in early childhood education at the Malaysian Institute of Teacher Education (2008-2016) before serving as a Senior Lecturer in Early Childhood Education at UMS (2016 until now).
Prof. Khader has spent more than 30 years researching economic empowerment of Rural, Farm, Fisher and Tribal Women. Gender aspects underpins her research on livelihoods, food and nutrition security, growth and well-being of community.
Dr. Shreshth Chhabra holds a PhD degree in Labour welfare. He has a teaching experience of almost 21 years and taught at undergraduate, Post graduate, Executive Programme, PhD coursework level and guided research projecs. In his present assignment, he is associated with DCBS, an affiliate college of De Montfort University, UK. He was associated with a Renaissance university as Coordinator Research wing and PhD supervisor. He has published in national and international Journals, Conferences and dailies. He is associated as reviewer in two international prestigious journals – Global Journal of Labour, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa and Journal of HRM, Science publishing group, New York, USA. He has conducted MDPs for MSME , State Electricity Board, Police and other corporate as well. He has been recognized by Rotary Club, Amity Business School and EMG-SSM Trust.
Picture of Nisha Arunatilake
Nisha Arunatilake has been a Research Fellow at IPS since 2000 and was appointed as the Director of Research in January 2018. She has extensive post-doctoral experience in conducting policy related economic research in labour market analysis, education, public finance and health.
Picture of Sabina Dewan
I have nearly two decades of professional experience studying the changing trends in the world of work. This includes a specialized focus on how trends like technology, urbanization, restructuring of trade into global value chains, migration and climate change affect women’s work, and the opportunities and challenges that women face to equal and productive participation in labour markets.
National University of Singapore
Picture of Audrey Chia
I work at the intersection of Business, Medicine and Environment. Many of the world’s current problems are best addressed from multiple perspectives. I examine issues ranging from sustainable development, pandemics, diversity, environment, social innovation and philanthropy, and suggest how we can do better.
He is currently the Dean of the School of Business and Administration at Wawasan Open University, Malaysia, and also instrumental in developing the MBA programme at the institution.
I am a senior lecturer in the School of the Built Environment. Prior to this I was a post-doctoral researcher at the Cambridge Centre for Housing and Planning Research, University of Cambridge (2001-2004) and a researcher at the Korea Research Institute for Human Settlement (1986-1994). I hold a BSc in Management Studies and MBA from the Univeristy of Ewha, Seoul, Korea and gained my PhD from London School of Economics and Political Science in 2000.
Janhavi Dave is the International Coordinator of HomeNet South Asia.
The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK)
Prof. Maggie Hu is currently an Assistant Professor of Real Estate and Finance at The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Centre for Economic and Social Development (CESD)
Zaw Oo
Zaw Oo is Executive Director of the Centre for Economic and Social Development, an independent think-tank dedicated to inclusive development in Myanmar. Previously, he was the Presidential Economic Advisor from 2012-2016, serving as a principal advisor on finance, industry, commerce and labour issues.
Yoshihiko Kadoya is a Distinguished Researcher of Hiroshima University, the Director of Hiroshima Institute of Health Economics Research (HiHER) and a Professor of Economics at Hiroshima University.

Giants in history

Physicist Narinder Singh Kapany (31 October 1926 – 4 December 2020) pioneered the use of optical fibres to transmit images, and founded several optical technology companies. Born in Punjab, India, he worked at a local optical instruments factory before moving to London for PhD studies at Imperial College. There, he devised a flexible fibrescope to convey images along bundles of glass fibres.
Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie (25 June 1936 – 11 September 2019) was an Indonesian engineer who was President of Indonesia from 1998 to 1999.
Rapee Sagarik (4 December 1922 – 17 February 2018) was Thailand’s renowned expert on orchids.
U Hla Myint (1920 – 2017) was a celebrated economist from Myanmar. Considered a prodigy, he was admitted to Rangoon University to study economics when he was just 14 years old. He went on to earn a Ph.D. at the London School of Economics (LSE).